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See also: Damage (characteristic)

**Damage** is any loss of HP inflicted by the use of a Weapon or a Spell on characters or monsters.

## Types of Damage[]

Damage has one of five **Element** types: Neutral (linked to Strength), Earth (also linked to Strength), Water (linked to Chance), Fire (linked to Intelligence) or Air (linked to Agility). Each elemental damage is increased by corresponding Characteristics.

### Direct Damage[]

Damage caused directly by a Weapon or a Spell.

### Drain attack[]

Also known as HP Steal, this is considered a Direct Damage as well, but in addition the attacker regains HP back depending on the amount of damage dealt. The HP regained back is always equal to 50% of the damage received by the target (rounded down) if the attacker is a character, or 100% if the attacker is a monster. HP regained from HP Steal is not considered to be a healing effect.

### Indirect Damage[]

Damage caused by non direct effects from Spells such as Summons, Traps, Glyphs, Pushback Damage or Poison.

### Area of Effect Damage[]

Damage that affects more than one square of the battlefield and therefore has the potential of damaging more than one enemy. When targeting an AoE Weapon or Spell, the orange squares on the grid refer to the area that will be affected. If an ally is on one of these orange squares, the ally will usually suffer damage too. All Hammers, Staffs and Shovels inflict AoE damage, there are also spells that inflict AoE damage (e.g Explosive Arrow, Crackler Punch).

### Erosion (Permanent Damage)[]

10% of all damage that a player takes during a fight becomes permanent for that fight. This means that a character's max HP can be significantly reduced over a prolonged fight. It should be noted, though, that this damage is **only for that fight** so it will disappear once the fight is over. There are also spells that increase the permanent damage taken by a target, like Sram's Mistake, Iop's Pressure, Ecaflip's Reflex, etc. Increased Erosion is capped at 50%.

### Pushback Damage[]

When a character or monster hits an obstacle before it could be pushed back the entire distance it should have been, it is dealt Pushback Damage.

This damage can be modified by

- The character's level.
- Pushback Damage equipment

The equation to calculate Pushback Damage:

If a target is pushed onto another target, Pushback Damage dealt to the second target is recalculated, taking into account its Pushback Resistance and the Pushback Damage of the original attacker, but by keeping the same number of pushed cells as the first target. The whole of it is then divided by 2.

The impact of the Pushback Damage bonus and the Pushback Resistance bonus (granted by some spells or equipment) is now dependant upon the number of cells pushed.

- If the character was pushed one cell, 25% of the Pushback Damage (and Pushback Resistance) bonus is taken into account.
- If the character was pushed two cells, 50% of the Pushback Damage (and Pushback Resistance) bonus is taken into account.
- If the character was pushed three cells, 75% of the Pushback Damage (and Pushback Resistance) bonus is taken into account.
- If the character was pushed four cells, 100% of the Pushback Damage (and Pushback Resistance) bonus is taken into account.
- If the character was pushed five cells, 125% of the Pushback Damage (and Pushback Resistance) is taken into account and so forth.

## Damage Modifiers[]

The base damage of a Weapon or a Spell is modified by various sources. The increase (or decrease) may be either in percentage or fixed amount. Percentage addition to damage is called **Power**. Fixed addition to damage is called **Damage (characteristic)**.

### Offensive[]

- Basic Characteristics: A percentage addition to the damage of linked elements by 1% per point.
- Spells and equipment that give Power.
- Spells and equipment that give Damage (characteristic)
- Spells and equipment that give Heals: A linear addition to
**healing only**. - Weapon Skill: This spell increases the base damage of Weapon attacks.
- Critical Hit: In the case of weapons, Critical hit bonus is added to the base damage range upon critical hits. For example, Captain Chafer's Small Daggers has +10 critical hit bonus, which will boost the regular damage range 15-22 to 25-32. In the case of attack spells, the damage range of critical hit applies instead of the regular damage range. For example, the damage range of Pressure level 1 boosts from 5-9 to 7-11 upon critical hit. Critical hit damage can be reduced by Critical Resistance.

### Defensive[]

- Shield (effect): A linear reduction of direct damage. Shield effects may be limited to certain elements only. Shield effects are modified by the defender's level. Masqueraiders also have a unique type of shield based on vitality, not the level of the caster. See Shield (Masqueraider) for more information.
- Reflect: Another type of linear reduction where damage is dealt back to the attacker. Reflected damage cannot exceed the original attack's damage, and is affected by resistance. Reflect effects are modified by the defender's wisdom. Some equipment give Reflect (see Reflect equipment), but they do not reduce the damage taken. Moreover, reflect bonus on equipment is not affected by the Wisdom and is no longer subtracted from the final damage. Formula:Reflected damage is limited to half the damage inflicted by the spell: if you get hit by a 10 damage spell, even if you had 50 reflect bonus on, it'd only reflect 5, resulting on 10 damage on you and 5 on attacker, effectively being a 50% damage reflect maximum.
- %Resistance: A percentage reduction of direct and indirect damage. Resistance effects are limited to a single element each, and the total resistance in an element for player characters can never effectively exceed 50% for damage calculation, even with enough resistance to do so. Monsters' resistance is effectively capped at 100% -- although on some it displays more -- rather than 50%.
- Linear Resistance: A linear reduction of direct and indirect damage. Linear Resistance effects are limited to a single element each, they are also not limited to 50 like the %Resistance. Its current limit is unknown.

## Calculation[]

The total spell damage you'll do will be the the multiplication of BaseDamage with the sum of (1 + RelevantStat+ Power), which then will be summed with the Damage, this number is then floored, which means that it rounds the number down to the nearest integer.

**Example:**[]

Magic Arrow Lv2: 18 to 21 Air Damage, let's use the minimum damage (18) for the base damage.

BaseDamage = 18

RelevantStat: Agility = 50

Power =0

Damage = 0

= 27

**Example 2:**[]

Sword of Iop Lv2: 37 to 41 Earth Damage. Let's use the max damage (41) for the base damage.

BaseDamage = 41

RelevantStat: Strength = 656

Power = 83

Damage = 39

= 382

### For weapons:[]

First, the bonus from a Weapon Skill is added to the class modifier, and the base damage is increased by the sum of these two bonuses, and rounded down. Then this value is increased by the sum of the Power and applicable Characteristic increases on the character, and rounded down. Then the total Damage (characteristic) effects are added, and the result is your damage output. Once the damage output is found, the target's total applicable Linear Resistance and Shield effects are subtracted from the damage output. Finally, the damage output is modified by the target's %Resistance in the corresponding element, and rounded down.

- Note: the "Math.floor()" function below, rounds the final value inside the function
**down**before storing it.

Res = Base Res = Math.floor( Res * (1 + ((Skil + Modi) / 100)) ) Res = Math.floor( Res * (1 + ((Stat + PDmg) / 100)) ) Res = Res + LDmg Res = Res - (LRes) Res = Math.floor( Res * (1 - (PRes / 100)) ) Base : Random value from base damage range. Skil : Applicable Weapon Skill bonus (Weapon attack only). Stat : Total value of relevant Characteristic. Minimum 0. PDmg : All bonuses of type Power. LDmg : All bonuses of type Damage (characteristic). LRes : Total value of relevant Shield (effect), Reflect, Linear Resistance bonuses on the target. PRes : Total value of relevant %Resistance bonuses on the target.

When calculating damage for a critical hit, for spells, use the base damage range of a critical hit.

For weapons, add the value labeled "Critical Hit Bonus: +X" listed on the weapon to the base damage, before any other modifications (such as Weapon Skill) take place. Using the method above, "Base" would be simply a random value from the base damage range plus the Critical hit bonus. See Critical Hit for more details.

### Advanced Damage Formulas[]

These formulas are designed to help you get stats and Set to best support a given Spell/Weapon in order to deal the most damage possible. These two formulas are briefly outlined here, for a more detailed explanation see this guide . The following is used with permission:

**Average Base Damage (ABD)**

This is the first of the two calculations, and represents the average damage that will be dealt with a given Spell or Weapon with no stat boosts from a Set, Characteristics, or Spells. For this calculation as defined here, Critical Hits *do* have an effect on the result. The only factors that change **ABD** come from the Weapon Skill, this is the only factor that change the Base Damage of an attack directly, before any stats take affect.

Here are definitions of the values used in the calculations:

ABD = Average Base Damage NC_MIN = Minimum Base Damage of the selected Spell on a Non-Crit NC_MAX = Maximum Base Damage of the selected Spell on a Non-Crit CR_MIN = Minimum Base Damage of the selected Spell on a Critical Hit CR_MAX = Maximum Base Damage of the selected Spell on a Critical Hit MIN = Minimum Base Damage of the selected Weapon (on a Non-Crit) MAX = Maximum Base Damage of the selected Weapon (on a Non-Crit) CRIT_B = The Critical Hit Bonus of the selected Weapon, which denotes how much more damage the weapon will do on a Critical Hit CRIT_VAL = The bottom part of the fraction that represents your current Chance of getting a Critical Hit Example: (you have a 1/CRIT_VAL chance of getting a Critical Hit) SKILL_VAL = The amount of Damage Increase granted by the Weapon Skill active Example: (your current active Weapon Skill increases your damage by SKILL_VAL%)

Calculation of the Average Base Damage of a Spell:

ABD = ([(NC_MIN + NC_MAX) / 2]*[CRIT_VAL - 1] + [(CR_MIN + CR_MAX) / 2]) / CRIT_VAL

Calculation of the Average Base Damage of a Weapon:

ABD = [([(MIN + MAX) / 2]*[CRIT_VAL - 1] + [([MIN + MAX] / 2)+CRIT_B]) / CRIT_VAL] * [100+SKILL_VAL]/100

**Damage Value Equivalent (DVE)**

This second of the Advanced Damage Formulas allows you to find the connection between Damage (characteristic) and Power when using the selected Spell or Weapon. It expands upon the **ABD** calculation explained above to find the total amount of Power needed to deal one more point of damage with that Spell/Weapon. In essence, each Damage (characteristic) boost you receive will increase your damage with the selected Spell/Weapon by the same amount as a Power boost equal to the **DVE**.

Calculation of the Damage Value Equivalent of a Spell or Weapon:

DVE = 100 / ABD